*pshat*understanding of Rav, we can answer our question of where the prior existing cup of 4 oz came from, such that the 4 shot glasses are judged to be 4 components of that original cup.

Rav disagrees with Shmuel and holds that if you pour the 4 little cups into one 4 oz cup, it is only considered 1 cup and you have not fulfilled your obligation of the 4 cups. However, you have fulfilled your obligation of שמחת יום טוב, drinking a רביעית, or 4 ounces of wine. (Note: In general, the מצוה of שמחת יום טוב

*is only required during the daytime, and the night time is subsumed under the drinking of the day. However, due to the unique nature of the night of the 15th as a ליל התקדש חג, it exists separately from the day of 15th and demands its own שמחה as well as its own הלל).*The commandment of שמחת יום טוב,

*of drinking 4 oz of wine, can be fulfilled by drinking done over the course of the meal. You are not required to drink it all at once, as would be required for a forbidden drinking to be punishable (by lashes, for instance). The reason for this is that the קיום, the*

*halachik*objective,

*of the מצוה*

*is not in the act of drinking wine itself (in which case it would have had to take place in a short time), rather*

*it*

*is in the effect that wine has on the person by producing a happy heart (which can take place over an extended period of time).*

Shmuel in the

*hava amina*held that the rabbinic commandment of 4 cups took the prior existing drinking of שמחת יום טוב,*and demanded that you drink this wine in a way in which it has the property of 4. Namely, you must divide it into 4 parts and drink those 4 components over the course of the meal. Since the מצוה of 4 cups stipulates a way of fulfilling the general מצוה**of drinking 4 oz of wine, the 4 little shot glasses are defined as components, relative to the 4 ounces of wine of שמחה.*
On the other hand, the

With this understanding of Shmuel, how can we define the

*maskana*of Shmuel*maintains that the rabbinic commandment of 4 cups was formulated as a separate, independent מצוה**,*(not merely a way of fulfilling another more general מצוה)*.*Therefore, the only way to give wine the property of 4 is through drinking 4 complete cups. You cannot divide one cup into 4 parts because there is no one cup of 4 ounces to begin with. In order to have the number 4 included in the cups, it is necessary to drink 4 separate cups of 4 ounces each.With this understanding of Shmuel, how can we define the

*machlokes*between him and Rav in the case where you pour the 4 smaller cups into one big cup and then drink it? Could we answer our second question on Rashi of how one big cup can possibly count as 4?